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Datura and Brugmansia species as Sacred Plants and Medicines
Once upon a time a long, long time ago, a boy called A'neglakya and his sister
A'neglakyatsi-tsa lived deep within the Earth. As often as they could they
came up to the surface to go on long walks, exploring the land, watching
and listening carefully to all and everything they encountered on their
journeys. Upon their return they told their mother about everything they
had seen. However, one day the twin-sons of the Sun-god grew suspicious
of them and they wondered what they should do about the inquisitive pair.
Soon after, A'neglakya and his sister were once again on one of their walkabouts,
when they came upon the sons of the Sun-god. Casually the twins inquired
about their well-being: "We are very happy" was the reply, and A'neglakya
told the twins how he and his sister could make people fall asleep and
have visionary dreams or let them 'see' the whereabouts of lost objects.
Upon hearing this the twins decided that the two definitely knew too much
and that they should put an end to A'neglakya's and A'neglakyatsi-tsa's
doings. That day the sons of the Sun-god let the brother and sister disappear
into the Earth forever. But lo and behold, two beautiful flowers emerged
from the ground in just the same spot where the two had vanished. They
were the same flowers that the brother and sister had laid on the heads
of the people to give them visions. In their memory the Gods called the
flower A'neglakya and their children spread far across the Earth - bringing
visions to many people.
This Zuni legend about the origin of Datura also provides an insight
into the nature of it's essential character. A'neglakya and his sister
could 'make people fall asleep and have visionary dreams'. Since time immemorial
various Datura species have been revered as sacred visionary plants by
practically all cultures who have come into contact with it. There are
many different species in this genus:
(Datura including synonyms and varieties.)
This article also includes references to the closely related Brugmansia,
often called "Tree Datura". Datura distribution spans all warm and tropical regions of the world.
Daturas usually grow as herbaceous annuals/perennials whilst the, South American, Brugmansias grow into trees.
The most striking feature, shared by all species are the beautiful trumpet-like flowers,
ranging in color from white to pinkish purple, and in some varieties even to bright golden yellow and red.
The flowers exude a beautiful, narcotic scent, especially at night.
The seed capsules of the Datura species are typically the size of a walnut and are
covered with thorns that may become quite sharp and spiky as the plant matures.
The appearance of these seed-capsules has given rise to the English common name,
'Thornapple' and the German 'Stechapfel'. When the 'apple' is ripe the capsule opens up into four segments,
thus releasing its little black to pale-brown seeds.
The Brugmansia fruits are more succulent and usually have a smooth surface.
The seeds are similar colours, sharply angular and generally larger than those of Datura (approx. 0.75 cm).
Because of the far-reaching distribution of Datura species across the planet there is some dispute concerning their origin.
The greatest variety of species occurs in Mexico and Central America which has led some
Botanists to believe that the explorers of the New World had been responsible for bringing Daturas back to Europe,
along with other members of the nightshade family.
Other sources suggest that their original home could be found somewhere in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea
from where it spread south to Africa and east to Asia,
eventually arriving in Europe, supposedly with the gypsies sometime during the Middle Ages.
It appears that Daturas have always played a significant role as
and evidence regarding their uses both in Asia and in the New World dates back at least 3000 years.
In both hemispheres Daturas were regarded as sacred and especially valued for their power to induce visionary dreams,
to see the future and to reveal the causes of disease and misfortune.
All over the New World, from the southwestern corner of North America,
throughout Mexico as well as in Central and South America the historical
and contemporary uses of the local Datura species
and Datura discolor)
by the indigenous population is well documented. In South American regions
are more common, tending to take the place of Daturas, in sacred and medicinal roles. From historical accounts recorded by the
we know that the Aztecs, who had a detailed knowledge about numerous sacred
and medicinal plants, were familiar with several types of Datura species.
One of these Daturas was called Toloache and is probably
It was used as a painkiller in certain initiation rituals and given as a narcotic to the ritual sacrifices.
For this purpose the preferred method of administration was either by enema or as a
rolled-up leaf suppository which reduces some of the less pleasant side effects of the drug.
Another type of Datura
called Atlinan by the Aztecs, enjoyed a particularly sacred status.
It was regarded as the sister of
another sacred hallucinogenic plant. These plants were so sacred that only the priests were allowed to use them.
With their help they held counsel with the Gods - divining the outcome of future events,
discovering the whereabouts of lost or stolen objects and prognosticating the causes of diseases,
especially if black magic was suspected.
As a medicinal remedy they prepared an ointment for cracked soles and injured feet,
made plasters for ulcers, pustules and infected wounds and skin sores,
and used it for poultices to treat rheumatic aches and pains.
In many areas of South America various Brugmansia species are cultivated and
used in much the same way as Datura species are elsewhere. To this day
the ground seeds are mixed into the Chicha, the sacramental corn beer
found everywhere on that continent. The combination of Datura seeds and alcoholic
drinks appears to be a global phenomena. It is a documented practice amongst
all kinds of unrelated tribes throughout the Americas, was practiced in
China (mixed with wine), and even became popular in Europe during the Middle
Ages (mixed into beer). Whilst in the New World the beverage was generally
used within a ritual context, in the Old World the brews were generally
consumed for more recreational purposes.
In the Andes Datura (probably Datura arborea =
is known as Chamico. Here, as in other parts of South America it is taken as a tea
or smoked to induce visions. Apart from its sacred significance it is also
regarded as one of the most ancient healing herbs. It is thought that the
ancient Peruvian healers and shamans employed "Datura's" narcotic and anesthetic
properties when performing ritual or medical operations (e.g. skull
The Auruks who are at home in present day Chile still use Datura in
much the same way as their ancestors did. It not only plays a significant
role as a shamanic plant but is also widely used as medicine. They even
give a brew of the leaves
to unruly children - trusting in the
powerful plant-spirit to teach the children a good measure of respect.
The Jivaros prepare a drink with roasted maize and the juice of
Brugmansia sanguinea fruits for the same purpose.
The Shamans and Brujos of the New World know how to use the plant for
astral travel. In this context Datura not only provides a visionary journey
but also facilitates the shape-shifting process. Transformations into birds
seem to be especially closely associated with the shamanic use of Datura.
In the Amazon various species of Brugmansia are used either alone or
as an additive to Ayahuasca, the most
important sacred visionary brew of that area. Ayahuasca preparations are
commonly used for initiation rites, healing ceremonies and shamanic journeying.
The Jivaros use Brugmansia in initiation rituals to obtain 'an outer soul',
a soul that is able to communicate with the ancestor spirits. Medicinally
Brugmansias are mainly employed as an external application for rheumatic
and arthritic aches, pains and swellings, skin rashes and wounds.
Among some tribes of the Sibundoy region Brugmansia is mixed in with
the dog-food as part of an ancient hunting magic ritual. It is believed
that in this way the dogs too will partake in the visionary powers of the
plant which will help them to 'see' the prey more easily.
learned about Datura from his mentor Don Juan. The wise old brujo was never
too fond of the 'devil's weed', claiming its power as like that of a woman.
"She is as powerful as the best of allies, but
there is something I personally don't like about her." he tells his pupil,
"She distorts men. She gives them a taste of power too soon without fortifying
their hearts and makes them domineering and unpredictable. She makes them
weak in the middle of their great power."
Nevertheless he instructed Castaneda in the preparation and uses of
all parts of the plant, roots, leaves, flowers and seeds. According to
Don Juan each part has a different power which must be conquered in its
own special way. He taught Castaneda the secrets of 'lizard divination'
in which the use of Datura plays a central role. In this method two lizards
are caught and specially prepared for the ritual. Whilst under the influence
of the Datura preparation the diviner asks the lizards to help find the
answer to his question. One of the reptiles is sent away to search for
clues, whilst the other remains sitting on the shoulder of the diviner,
whispering in his ear all that the wandering lizard is seeing and experiencing.
Don Juan also taught his pupil how to approach the plant properly and
how to ask permission from the plant-spirit before digging it up. He was
very particular about these details and told Castaneda never to use an
iron tool when digging up Datura. Only by using a branch of a special tree-friend
of the plant could one be sure that the plant would not be unduly hurt
and thus would be more likely to act beneficially and friendly in the subsequent
encounter. This taboo regarding the use of iron tools when digging up a
particular plant is encountered frequently in association with magical
and medicinal plants (e.g. mandrake, ginseng and many others) It points
to the extremely ancient use of that plant - dating back to times before
the first iron was ever cast.
The native people of the southwestern regions
of North America also hold Datura sacred. Here it is mostly Datura inoxia
and Datura inoxia ssp inoxia (syn: Datura meteloides) that are used for magical and medicinal purposes. In
Zuni tradition it belongs to the rain-priests who use the root (Datura inoxia)
when they appeal to their ancestor-spirits for rain. Sometimes they also
sprinkle a little powdered root into their eyes in order to communicate
with 'the feathered ones' at night.
The Chumash people of California regarded Datura (Datura metel) as their
'Culture Plant'. According to their Cosmology the world was originally
inhabited by 'the First People', supernatural beings who were regarded
as the tribal ancestors. The world of the First People was destroyed by
a primal flood which transformed these ancestors into all the birds, animals
and plants of today. Among the First People was an old Grandmother known
as 'Momoy', who had the gift of clairvoyance. When the flood came she was
transformed into the Datura plant. The descendants of the First People
(i.e. the Chumash) can share in her gift of clairvoyance by partaking of
her sacrament. According to the myth, Momoy washes her hands in water and
the Initiate drinks the resulting liquid. Thereupon he falls into a deep
sleep in which he meets his animal-spirit helper, communicates with his
ancestors or has visionary dreams about his future.
Datura (Datura metel) plays an essential role in the Initiation ritual
of the Chumash. Upon reaching puberty all young boys and girls are given
a cold water extract of Datura root which sends them on a visionary journey
with a deep hallucinatory sleep to follow. Boys are usually initiated individually
whilst girls, due to their gentler temperament, may sometimes be initiated
in groups. The purpose of the ritual is to establish contact with an animal
helper or other type of protector through their visions. The bond thus
formed remains strong for the rest of their lives and is regarded as indispensable
for the success of all their worldly and other-worldly undertakings. The
initiation ritual takes place under the guidance and supervision of five
experienced shamans. When the initiate awakens from his sleep he is in
a very suggestible frame of mind. During this period the shamans interpret
his visions and sing to him, thereby conferring tribal morals, ethics and
After the initial initiation ceremony individuals can choose to visit
Momoy any time they deem necessary, for instance to get in touch with the
spirit of a relative who has passed away, to find lost objects or to reveal
the cause and cure of a disease. Shamans undertake repeated journeys to
Momoy in order to acquire more spirit helpers and subsequently to gain
more power. Certain ritual preparations, such as fasting and sexual abstinence
for several days usually precede the encounter, though in emergency situations
many of the restrictions may be disregarded. The only taboo concerning
the use of Datura is imposed on consumptives and menstruating women.
The Chumash also use Datura medicinally as an anesthetic for setting
bones, to treat bad bruises and wounds, to 'freshen the blood' and to treat
hemorrhoids. Among some groups Datura was used to induce a quasi comatose
state in cases of severe trauma. The anesthetic and narcotic properties
of the plant would numb the pain receptors thereby reducing stress and
tension in the patient, which in turn speeds up the healing process.
The use of Datura as a magical plant was and probably still is also
common in the Caribbean. There it is known as 'herbe aux sorciers' (herb
of the sorcerers) and 'concombre-zombi' (Zombie-Cucumber). This name refers
to a rather sinister use of the plant - literally zombification. Delinquents
in particular became the victims of this practice. Criminals who did not
seem to improve their records upon other means of punishment sometimes
were turned into Zombies. A strong herbal brew containing, among other
plants, Datura combined with the extremely potent extract of the puffer-fish
poison (d-tubucucurine) was given to the criminal. The effect of the brew
was to stupefy the convict to the point of pseudo-coma and to numb his
physical sensations. In this state a person is unable to respond to any
kind of stimulus, although they may well be consciously aware of them.
The Zombie-to-be was declared dead and placed into a coffin with an attached
air-tube and a funeral ceremony was conducted. After 3 days or so the coffin
was retrieved from the ground and the Zombie was given another dose of
Datura followed by an 'initiation into the after-life', in which he was
brainwashed in accordance with the rules of the new order. From that day
on he was given regular doses of the Datura concoction to maintain the
hypnotic state. The spirit of the victim was thus literally forced to get
out and stay out of the body and the Zombie lost all sense of self or ego-identity.
The Bokors and Exumas, the black healers and shamans of the Caribbean
islands obviously also knew of less sinister uses of the plant. Like other
shamans they used the plant to induce visionary trances, to divine the
sources of disease and misfortune and to retrieve lost objects and employed
it medicinally. The clairvoyant use of Datura (Datura fastuosa) is also documented
in Africa. Here it is a young 'untouched' boy who plays the role of the
'criminal-telepathist'. Under the influence of a Datura concoction he is
taken to a place of crime whereupon he 'tunes into the scene'. He wanders
around restlessly, tracing the steps and actions of the culprit he reconstructs
the events, eventually following the thieves trail until he finds him and/or
In Eurasia references to the uses and sacred status of Datura
(predominantly Datura metel) can be found from the Caspian Sea to China. Especially
in India it found a highly revered place of honor as one of Shiva's sacred
plants. According to the vamana purana
it grew out of Shiva's chest and the garuda purana gives instructions for
ritual offerings of Datura flowers, which should be made to Yogashwara
(=Shiva) on the 13th day of the waxing Moon in January.
Sadhus and Yogis smoke the leaves and seeds mixed with Ganja, another
plant sacred to Shiva. The combination of the two plants alludes to the
dual (androgynous) nature of the God. Datura represents the male polarity
whilst Ganja symbolizes the feminine aspect. The chilum is lit with two
sticks, further signifying the duality. As the God of Flames Shiva transforms
the inherent powers of his sacred plants and invokes the cosmic sexual
energy of the universe. The Kundalini snake, hitherto fast asleep in the
nether regions of the base chakra is awakened and winds its way up through
the chakras until the yogi's consciousness is filled with cosmic consciousness
in which all opposites merge into oneness. In accordance with this symbolism
Datura flowers in particular held a widespread reputation as a powerful
Elsewhere a somewhat less charming ritual practice was associated with
Datura intoxication. The Thugs, or Thuggees, a particularly fanatical sect
of Kali-worshippers also held Datura (Datura fastuosa var. alba) sacred. According
to their belief Kali, the dark Goddess of death and fertility demanded
at least one male sacrifice per day. A Datura preparation known as Dhƒt,
was used both to bestow a fearless frenzy in the worshipers as they attacked
their victims (usually travellers), and to drug these prior to the sacrifice.
Man-t'o-lo is a Chinese name for Datura (Datura alba) and a Taoist legend
refers to the plant as the flower of one of the pole stars. According to
the story messengers from this star could be recognized because they always
carry a Datura flower. In China it was customary to mix Datura with Cannabis
and wine. According to ancient tradition it is said that if the person
gathering the plant was laughing at the time, all who would drink from
it would also laugh but if the gatherer had been crying, all that were
to taste the wine would also cry and if they had been dancing, all that
were to partake in it would also feel like dancing. The Chinese valued
Datura as an aphrodisiac and for other recreational uses as well as for
its medicinal properties.
In Europe Datura was apparently not commonly known in the classic period.
It appears to have been introduced by the gypsies, or maybe the wandering
herb found its own way into the warmer regions of southern Europe. The
gypsies certainly knew and used the plant for magical purposes, such as
scrying and as an aphrodisiac. It is also reported to have been one of
the essential ingredients of the infamous flying ointment of the witches.
Numerous accounts of 'journeys to the Sabbath' during which the accused
'danced with the devil' were recorded by the executioners of the inquisition.
These accounts were usually obtained through severe torture and it is difficult
to separate actual experience (visionary or real for that matter) from
things admitted to out of fear and terror. However, it now seems to be
clear that the experiences of flying through the sky, dancing with the
devil and partaking in orgiastic feasts and rituals were in fact references
to hallucinatory journeys whilst under the influence of some pretty powerful
alkaloids. The prosecution of course took every word as naked factual truth
and the 'witches' were condemned to burning at the stake for their 'shameful
Nevertheless, despite its unpropitious reputation as a witches-herb
it was valued and commonly employed for its medicinal properties even in
Europe. Until recently Datura cigarettes were prescribed to asthma sufferers.
Datura acts anti-spasmodically and has a particularly relaxant effect on
the respiratory muscles. Furthermore it suppresses glandular secretion,
thus reducing the amount of mucous excreted through the lungs - the combination
of these valuable properties makes it an almost ideal remedy for the treatment
Throughout the Middle Ages Datura flowers were commonly sold for their
aphrodisiac qualities all over central and southern Europe. They had the
reputation of breaking down any resistance to sexual approaches. Pimps
in particular knew how to use the herb to their own best advantage. An
indignant German writer aptly documents this common use of Datura, which
he describes as: 'a tool of brothel-keepers, wicked seducers of girls,
depraved courtesans and shameless lechers.'
Evidently Datura did not enjoy such a high degree of reverence and respect
by the people of Europe as it received in Asia or the Americas. The difference
of attitude among the Church-fathers on either side of the Atlantic, who
in Europe had been largely responsible for sullying the reputation of Datura,
is epitomized in the image of 'Santo Toloache', the patron Saint of Datura
found in Mexico. In the New World the Catholic Church was forced to sanctify
the old pre-christian deity. Santo Toloache helps those who wish for reciprocated
love. The faithful worshipers who pray to him make offerings of Datura
flowers and take a tea of Datura leaves as a special sacrament. Here too,
the ancient use of Datura as a powerful aphrodisiac is clearly implied.
Datura preparations can have very powerful effects, depending not only
on the type of species and dose used, but also very much dependent on the
'set and setting' of the person using it. The effect on unsuspecting or
unprepared people is graphically and comically illustrated in the following
account dated to 1676. Inadvertently a group of young soldiers had consumed
rather large portions of soup containing Datura leaves as a 'spice':
"In Virginia there is a plant called the Jamestown weed, whereof some
having eaten plentifully became fools for several days; one would blow
up a feather in the air, a second would dart straws at it with much fury,
a third sit naked, like a monkey grinning at the rest; a fourth fondly
kiss and paw his companions, and sneer in their faces. In this frantic
state they were confined, lest they kill themselves, though there appeared
nothing but innocence in all their actions. A thousand such simple tricks
they played and after eleven days they returned to themselves, not remembering
anything that had passed."
All species of Datura and Brugmansia contain powerful alkaloids which
in sufficient quantities have the power to kill. The main alkaloids represented
are Scopolamine, Hyoscyamine and Atropine. Self-experimentation is not
recommended and must be strictly avoided by anyone who suffers any kind
of heart condition. The effects are stimulating on the central nervous
system and simultaneously depressing on the peripheral nerves. Symptoms
include an increased heart rate, drying up of the mucus membranes, a dry
throat and sometimes cramps. At first the effects are arousing, sometimes
manifesting as uncontrolled talking or laughing, forgetfulness and indulging
in senseless repetitive activities. Vivid hallucinations and delirious
illusions may also occur. Occasionally the effects can produce extreme
violence and destructive urges. The period of agitation is usually followed
by a deep prolonged sleep accompanied with vivid dreams and hallucinations,
often of a sexual nature. Upon awakening one might experience a distinct
hang-over and a total lack of memory as to what actually happened during
the state of altered consciousness.
In cases of poisoning one should induce vomiting and bowel evacuation as a first aid measure.
Willow-charcoal powder can be given for detoxification.
Sacred plants should always be approached with due respect and should
never be taken simply for pure entertainment value. Drug-induced visionary
journeys can have a profound impact on the psyche, sometimes with long
lasting after effects. It is recommended that no-one should attempt such
a journey without the guidance and support of an experienced person. In
traditional societies it is customary to undergo a cleansing process prior
to engaging in any kind of trance or visionary work. Utmost importance
is placed on mental, emotional and physical preparation and purification
to ensure a beneficial outcome of the ritual. Not to undergo these preparations
lays the candidate wide open for a trip to hell or worse, lasting effects
of mental derangement and paranoia following the experience. Sacred plants
only provide the key to other dimensions but what is to be found there
depends on the mental and psychological state of the initiate.
Thornapple, Devil's Apple, Devil's Weed, Jamestown Weed, Jimson Weed, Stramonium,
Sacred Datura, Devil's Trumpet, Angel's Trumpet, Apple of Peru, Stinkweed,
Stechapfel, Atlinan, Campana, Concombre-Zombi, Xtohk'kuh, Toloache, Man
t' o lo fa, Wan t'o hua, Nau Yeung fa, El Bethene
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Datura or Brugmansia
Doctrine of Signatures
Mary Lambert's poem "Moonflower"
Entheogens, Seeds of Sacred and Psychotropic Plant Species
This is not a complete list, but does include most of the better known species, please check our Master List to see all the seeds we offer.
Botanical information, common names, notes associated with this
article, and bibliography.
Datura stramonium B & T database output
Angel trumpets - pictures of Brugmansia and Datura species and varieties.
B and T World Seeds' Ethnobotanical, Environmental
and Economic plant catalogues.
Solanaceae seed price list.
Includes Atropa, Brugmansia, Capsicum, Datura etc.
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All warm and tropical regions throughout the world, in desert and arid
zones as well as in the tropical forest region and mountainous areas.
Tropane alkaloids (hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine). The seeds contain
the highest alkaloid concentration in both the Datura and Brugmansia species.
Most frequently the seeds and flowers are used but in some cultures the
roots and leaves are also taken. Preparations include leaves rolled up
into cigarettes, mixing seeds with cannabis and/or tobacco for smoking,
mixing ground seeds with wine or beer, teas made with the leaves and flowers,
cold water extracts of the root, enemas prepared with an infusion made
from the leaves and suppositories made from rolled up leaves.
Hallucinogen, visionary journeys, shape-shifting, divination, clairvoyance,
love magic, aphrodisiac, amulets, incense.
Spasmolytic, anti-asthmatic, anticholinergic, narcotic and anesthetic.
The leaves are smoked as 'asthma cigarettes', steambath are prepared
with the leaves for bad coughs and bronchitis, the juice is boiled and
mixed with hog-lard as an external application for all types of burns,
scalds, inflammations and hemorrhoids, poultices of the leaves are applied
to badly healing wounds, swellings and arthritic or rheumatic pains, as
an antispasmodic to control Parkinson's disease.
Grow in full sun in moisture retentive but well drained fertile and preferably
Propagate by seeds sown in situ in spring (16°C / 61°F)
or earlier under glass and set out after danger of frost has passed.
The foliage is extremely susceptible to viruses affecting other Solanaceous
plants and may act as a host . . .
Daturas are subject to statutory control as weeds in some countries
(notably parts of Australia).
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For a long time Brugmansias, were regarded as a subspecies of the genus
Datura. Only relatively recently have Botanists classified Brugmansias
as a separate genus. However, the phytochemistry of Datura and Brugmansia
species and hence their sacred and medicinal uses are very similar indeed.
i.e. plants that have played a significant role in the development of human culture.
See Badianus Manuscript - An Aztec Herbal Of 1552 by Martin de la Cruz
and Juannes Badianus; Emmert , 1940 (Ed.)
Ololuiqui (Turbina corymbosa), a member of the Convolvulaceae, known to
the Atztecs as "the green snake'. It got itself quite a reputation during
the psychedelic revolution of the 60s; most people may be more familiar
with it's relative - Ipomoea tricolor (Morning Glory).
The success of such operations is archeologically evidenced. The bones
of trepanated skulls found at archeological sites in Peru show no signs
Ayahuasca, a strong hallucinatory brew, usually prepared from
a member of the Malpighiaceae, and
of the Rubiaceae
family. Sometimes other species of Banisteriopsis and/or Psychotria are
used. Ayahuasca is the most important psychotropic ritual preparation of
the Amazon. Frequently other psychoactive plants are added to the basic
brew. These are termed 'maestros' and are regarded as plant-spirit teachers.
Vamana purana and garuda purana are parts of the Puranas, a series of lesser
epics dating from about the 4th to the 16th centuries A.D.
"Datura and Brugmansia species as Sacred Plants and Medicines"Web presentation designed by Matthew Sleigh
was written by Kay Morgenstern
Bibliography:R..E. Schultes & A. Hoffman, Pflanzen der Götter, Hallwag, Bern 1987.
Bert Marco Schuldes, Psychoaktive Pflanzen, Nachtschatten Verlag (Solothurn)
& MedienXperimente (Lohrbach).
G. & M. Haerkötter, Wterich + Hexenmilch, Giftpflanzen, Eichborn
Verlag, Frankfurt 1991.
G. & M. Haerkötter, Hexenfurz und Teufelsdreck, Eichborn Verlag,
W.D. Storl, Von Heilkrutern und Pflanzengottheiten, Aurum Verlag,
Christian Rätsch, Indianische Heilkruter, Diederichs Verlag, Munich
Christian Rätsch, Lexikon der Zauberpflanzen, Adeva Verlag, Graz 1988.
Christian Rätsch, Von den Wurzeln der Kultur, Sphinx Verlag, Basel
Harold A. Hansen, The Witch's Garden, Weiser Verlag, York Beach 1983.
Virgil J. Vogel, American Indian Medicine, University of Oklahoma Press
M. Grieves, A Modern Herbal, Penguin 1984.
Joseph Campbell, Oriental Mythology, Penguin Books, 1972.
Carlos Castaneda, The Teachings Of Don Juan, Penguin Books 1974.