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Common Name:
Botanical name:
GOLDENSEAL IN PROFILE

GOLDENSEAL (Hydrastis canadensis)

Ranunculacae

Common names:
Orange Root, Yellow Root, Yellow Puccoon, Ground Raspberry, Indian Dye, Eye Root, Jaundice Root

Description:
A striking, perrennial woodland herb. From an underground yellow rootstock rises a large (9Ē at flowering time), wrinkled basal leaf and a hairy flower stem. The rootstock consists of an irregularly knotted, thin (¼ - ¾ inch) horizontal root, marked with scars from previous yearís flowerstem. The rootstock also gives of numerous slender rootlets below. The flowerstem emerges early in the spring, rising 6 to 12 inches above the ground. It is covered in downward pointing hairs and has small, brown scales at the base. The flowerstem gives rise to two large wrinkled leaves, resembling the basal leaf. They are palmately cut into 5 to 7 lobes, with finely and irregularly serrated margins, prominently veined and also covered with hairs, especially on their upper side. The upper leaf is sessile, whilst the lower one is stalked. A single small flower, with three small, greenish-white sepals appears in April. The sepals fall away as soon as the flower expands, which has no petals, but numerous, prominent stamens. The fruit ripens in July and has the superficial appearance of a raspberry, with small, fleshy, red berries, tipped with the persistent styles and containing 1 or 2 black, shiny seeds. However, it is not edible.

Habitat:
Hydrastis canadensis is a woodland plant of the North Eastern region of the U.S. from Vermont to Georgia, west to Alabama, Nebraska, Minnesota and Arkansas. In Canada it occurs chiefly in Ontario. The main growing region used to be Ohio valley, before it became the area fell victim to deforestation and development. Stands in New York state have been depleted since early this century.

Status:
Goldenseal has been listed as an endangered species since 1991. On June 18, 1997 it was proposed and accepted for listing on Appendix II of the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) at the organizations 10th Conference of parties meeting in Zimbabwe.

HISTORY
Goldenseal has a long standing history for use as a medicinal plant among the native people of the northeastern United States. The Cherokee used it for treatment of cancer, "general debility," "dyspepsy" and to improve appetite and as a tonic and wash for local inflammations. The Iroquois made a decoction of roots for treatment of whooping cough and diarrhea, liver trouble, fever, sour stomach and gas and as an emetic for biliousness. They also prepared a compound infusion with other roots for use as drops in the treatment of earache and as a wash for sore eyes. Mixed with bearís grease it is said to have been used as an insect repellent. Native people also valued the yellow roots as a stain and dye.

The first settlers learned about the benefits of this herb from the native people and soon Goldenseal gained widespread popularity. In 1760 Miller brought a sample back to the old world (then known as Warnera) and it was grown at Kew, Edinborough and Dublin. However, since the herb did not appeal to gardeners it never became a popular plant for cultivation in England. In 1782 Hugh Martin mentioned the use of Goldenseal as a yellow dye to the Philosophical Society but it was not until 1798 that its medicinal virtues began to attract attention. From then on its reputation as a powerful healing herb spread, both in England and America, and by about 1850 it had became an important article of commerce. The demand for it increased rapidly and as early as 1905 the U.S. department of agriculture drew attention to the situation which even then appeared to have been somewhat worrying. The annual supply in those days was estimated at between 200 000 - 300 000 pounds! A tenth of this staggering amount was designated for export to the old world. Needless to say, the supply began to diminish, both from over collection, but even more so due to deforestation of its natural habitat, as much of the eastern United States was stripped of its native woodlands. In 1991 it was officially recognised as an endangered species and now, in 1997 trade restrictions are being imposed in a belated attempt to save what is left of this once abundant species.

CULTIVATION:
Goldenseal can be grown both from seed and from the rhizome. It requires a partially shaded situation (60 - 70%), in a well draining, rich humus soil. Rootstocks can be divided into small pieces and set at least 8Ē apart. Planting should be undertaken in the autumn. The plants should be allowed to grow for 2 - 3 years before harvesting, though by the 4th year the roots are said to become too fibrous for medicinal use. Transplanting may be undertaken at any time. According to an American grower 32 healthy plants set per square yard will produce 2 lb of dry root after three years of growth.

CONSTITUENTS:
Goldenseal contains at least three active alkaloids, namely Hydrastine, Berberine and Canadine, as well as traces of essential oil, fatty oil and resin.

ACTIONS:
Tonic, alterative, astringent, haemostatic, anti-inflammatory, anti-catarrhal, mild laxative, muscular stimulant, oxytocic, bitter,

MEDICINAL USES:
Goldenseal has recently gained a reputation as a herbal antibiotic and immune system enhancer . Traditionally it was used for treatment of inflammatory conditions of the mucus membranes, especially those of the digestive system. Itís traditional uses include treatment of peptic ulcers, gastritis, dyspepsia and colitis. It has proven its value in cases of diarrhea, haemorrhoids and habitual constipation. It is said to stimulate appetite and generally have a toning effect on the whole body. It is also said to be effective for treatment of catarrhal conditions of the upper respiratory tract and inflammations of the urinary tract. Its astringent properties have also been employed in cases of excessive menstruation and internal bleeding. It has a stimulating effect on the uterine muscles for which it is sometimes used as an aid in childbirth. However, since this effect can be very powerful and thus quite painful, it is not recommended to attempt this treatment without the supervision of a midwife skilled in the use of herbal remedies. Externally, a wash can be prepared to treat skin conditions such as eczema and ringworm, as well as wounds and badly healing sores, or used as drops in cases of earache and conjunctivitis. The decoction is also said to be effective as a douche to treat trichomonas and thrush. As a gargle it can be employed in cases of gum infections and sore throats.

CAUTIONS:
Large doses should be avoided. Goldenseal stimulates contraction of the uterus and thus should be avoided during pregnancy. It may also raise bloodpressure and should not be used by people with any kind of cardiac problems.