B & T World Seeds


Botanical thumbnails - Flower


burr: a rough or prickly propagule consisting of a seed or fruit and associated floral parts or bracts.


campanulate: bell-shaped.


cyme or cymose: a simple determinate inflorescence (the flowering stem ends in a flower, more flowers may grow from side buds lower on the stem).


globular (or globose): more or less ball shaped, spherical.


infundibuliform: (or funnelform) funnel, trumpet or cone shaped.


spadix: an inflorescence with small flowers crowded on a thickened, fleshy axis. Typically just above or enclosed by a spathe.


spathe: a bract (or pair of bracts) enclosing or subtending a flower cluster or spadix.


spike: an unbranched, indeterminate inflorescence in which the flowers are without stalks.


cone or strobilus: a stem surrounded by lateral organs bearing reproductive parts.


thyrse: a branched inflorescence in which the main axis is indeterminate.
Thyrses' flowers are arranged along the main axis in cymes.


trumpet: conical tube.


tube: longer than wide.


turbinate: top-shaped; (obconical).


umbel: a racemose inflorescence in which all the individual flower stalks arise in a cluster at the top of the peduncle and are of about equal length.

Botanical thumbnails - Foliage


acuminate: of a leaf, becoming more sharp ( acute ) towards the tip.


bipinnate: divided into pinnae, twice; doubly pinnate.


biserrate: margins having serrations along the serrations; doubly serrate.


ciliate: leaf margins fringed with hairs.


cordate: of a leaf blade, broad and notched at the base; heart-shaped.


crenate: a leaf edge with rounded teeth.


crenulate: leaf margins with smaller, or less pronounced, rounded teeth.


cuneate: acutely triangular based with the stem attached at the point (wedge shaped).


deltoid: triangular with the sides of about equal length, attached at a side.


elliptic: oval in outline, widest at the centre.


falcate: sickle-shaped.


flabellate: fan-shaped, with a wedge-shaped outline and sometimes conspicuously plaited or nerved. eg. the leaf of Ginkgo biloba.


hastate: spear-shaped; of a leaf blade, narrow and pointed but with two basal lobes spreading approximately at right angles.


imparipinnate: pinnate with a single leaflet at the apex.


lanceolate: of a leaf, about four times as long as it is broad, broadest in the lower half and tapering towards the tip.


linear: very narrow in relation to the length, and with the sides parallel.


lorate: of leaves, strap-shaped (moderately long with the two margins parallel).


lyrate: deeply lobed, with a large terminal lobe and smaller lateral ones.


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obcordate: of a leaf blade, broad and notched at the tip; heart-shaped but attached at the pointed end. cf. cordate


oblanceolate: similar in shape to lanceolate but attached at the narrower end.


oblique: of a leaf or leaflet, larger on one side of the midrib than on the other, i.e. asymmetrical.


oblong: having the length greater than the width but not many times greater, and the sides parallel.


obovate: similar in shape to ovate but attached at the narrower end.


obtuse: blunt or rounded at the apex, the converging edges separated by an angle greater than 90 degrees.


orbicular: circular or nearly so.


oval: similar to elliptic but more rounded at the base and tip.


ovate: shaped like a section through the long axis of an egg, and attached by the wider end. cf. ovoid.


palmate: of a leaf, divided into several leaflets which arise at the same point.


palmatifid: of a leaf, deeply divided into several lobes which arise (almost) at the same level. cf. pinnatifid.


pectinate: a closely segmented pinnate form (usually leaf); like a comb.


pinnate: divided into pinnae; once-compound. cf. bipinnate, tripinnate..
pinnules: the pinnate leaflets of bipinnate leaves.


pinnatifid: cut deeply into lobes that are spaced out along the axis (of the leaf). cf. palmatifid.


pinnatisect: dissected down to the midrib but having the segments confluent with it.


plicate: folded back and forth longitudinally like a fan.


reniform: kidney-shaped.


rhomboid: quadangular, with the lateral angles obtuse.


runcinate: deeply lobed and with the lobes slanted away from the apex.


sagittate: shaped like an arrow-head.


serrate: leaf margins with saw-like teeth.


serrulate: leaf margins with smaller saw-like teeth.


spathulate (= spatulate): spoon-shaped; broad at the tip and narrowed towards the base.

Botanical thumbnails - Fruit


achene: a dry, indehiscent fruit formed from a superior ovary of one carpel and containing one seed which is free from the pericarp.


aggregate fruit: a cluster of fruits formed from the free carpels of one flower.


Berry: a simple fruit, having seeds and pulp, produced from a single ovary.


burr: a rough or prickly propagule consisting of a seed or fruit and associated floral parts or bracts.


capsule: a dry fruit formed from two or more united carpels and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds.


drupe: a succulent fruit formed from one carpel, having the seed(s) enclosed in an inner stony layer of the fruit wall.


cone: in gymnosperms and club-mosses, a group of sporophylls arranged compactly on a central axis.
(Loosely) in Casuarina, a woody multiple fruit incorporating the bracts and bracteoles associated with the flowers.


globular (or globose): more or less ball shaped, spherical.


ovoid: egg-shaped (in three dimensions). cf. ovate.


pyxidium: a capsule ("box") whose lid opens to release the seeds.


strobilus: a 'cone' consisting of sporophylls borne close together on an axis.


turbaniformis: turban-shaped.


turbinate: top-shaped; (obconical).


utricle: similar to an achene, but with a compound ovary, and sometimes several seeds. The ovary may be bladder-like or corky.

Botanical name:

Common Name: